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истання коштів при зміні процесу виробництва. Нормативне значення показника - 0,4 - 0,6.
3. Заборгованості.
сума позикових коштів
Кз=
сума власних коштів

Залежить від структури та швидкості обігу коштів.Прискорення оборотності коштів не впливає на фінансовий стан позичальника. Нормативне значення показника - 0,5 - 1,0.
4. Фінансової стабільності.
джерела власних та прирів-
нених до них коштів + дов-
гострокові позикові кошти
Кфс=
актив балансу

Коефіцієнт показує питому вагу в загальній вартості майна усіх джерел коштів, що позичальник може використати у своїй поточній діяльності без втрат для кредиторів. При значенні 0,5 - ризик мінімальний.
5. Участь власних та довгострокових позичених коштів у запасах та затратах.
розділ І пасиву + довго-
строкові позичені кошти
мінус розділ І активу
Кувпк=
розділ ІІ активу

Підтверджує платоспроможність клієнта. Нормативне значення показника 0,5.
6. Загальний коефіцієнт покриття за балансом.
актив балансу мінус розділ
І активу
Кпб=
короткострокові позички +
позичені кошти + розрахунки
з кредиторами (за виключен-
ням позик для працівників)

Показує здатність позичальника розраховуватись за своїми боргами. Значення - не менше 1,0.
Необхідно мати на увазі: при розрахунках коефіцієнтів обов'язково виключаються з відповідних статей балансу знос основних засобів та нематеріальних активів, малоцінних і швидкозношуваних предметів.
При здійснені оцінки кредитоспроможності та фінансової стабільності банки можуть використовувати інші показники:
а) коефіцієнт інвестування, якщо він більше одиниці, це свідчить про достатність власних коштів.
джерела власних коштів
Кі=
основні кошти та поза-
оборотні активи

б) коефіцієнт покриття балансу дає змогу встановити, чи покривають ліквідні кошти суму короткострокових зобов'язань і характеризує спроможність позичальника розрахуватися за своїми боргами
оборотні активи
Кпб=
короткострокові зобов'язання

Цей коефіцієнт може дорівнювати 3,0, але не менше 1,0 і відповідність значення цього показника оптимальній величині є гарантією низького кредитного ризику.
в) коефіцієнт використання фінансових ресурсів (усього майна) дає змогу визначити, за який період одержаний прибуток може компенсувати вартість майна
балансовий прибуток
Квфр=
актив балансу

г) коефіцієнт ефективності використання власних коштів дає узагальнену оцінку ефективності вкладених коштів
балансовий прибуток
Кввк=
джерела власних коштів

При аналізі та визначенні оцінки діяльності позичальника можуть бути використані інші показники.

Для отримання комплексної оцінки кредитоспроможності позичальника потрібно визначені показники порівняти з оптимальними і на підставі їх аналізу вирішувати питання про можливість надання кредиту.
Реальні висновки та пропозиції за результатами оцінки діяльності позичальника дозволять уникнути банку невиправданого ризику при здійсненні кредитних взаємовідносин.
Кредит надається банком, як правило, позичальникам з найбільш високою кредитоспроможністю, які забезпечують своєчасне його погашення за рахунок отриманих доходів.
У разі укладання договору та надання кредиту позичальнику із недостатньою кредитоспроможністю доцільно застосовувати такі заходи щодо зменшення кредитного ризику:
 зменшення розміру кредиту, що надається одному позичальнику;
 страхування кредитів;
 одержання достатнього забезпечення за виданими кредитами шляхом укладання договору застави на майно, цінні папери позичальника;
 надання позичальником поручительств, гарантій інших організацій;
 скорочення строків користування кредитом.
В практиці роботи комерційних банків України використовуються наступні показники, за допомогою яких можна оцінити ефективність роботи потенційного позичальника:
1. Рентабельність підприємства.
2. Рентабельність реалізованої продукції.
3. Рентабельність акціонерного капіталу.
4. Рентабельність активів.
5. Рентабельність затрат.
Ефективність використання клієнтом оборотного капіталу можна оцінити за допомогою таких показників:
1. Тривалість обороту капіталу в днях.
2. Кількість оборотів капіталу за певний період (швидкість обороту капіталу)
3. Коефіцієнт закріплення оборотного капіталу в вартості реалізованої продукції.
Звітність потенційного позичальника є лише одним з джерел одержання про нього інформації. До інших каналів відносяться архів банку, обмін інформацією з іншими банками і фінансовими установами, вивчення фінансової преси.
Розглядаючи можливість використання тих чи інших показників для оцінки кредитоспроможності позичальників, не слід забувати і про проведення об’ємного якісного аналізу. Так, наприклад менеджери кредитних відділів американських банків про підготовці кредитних меморандумів складають об’ємний звіт не тільки про основні характеристики діяльності позичальника (загальні відомості, дані про керівництво та його зміни, рейтингова оцінка акцій, облігацій та векселів, фінансові результати та інші кредитори), а й про галузь, у якій він працює, характер ринку його продукції тощо. Причому такий меморандум складається за стандартною схемою з конкретними висновками і пропозиціями менеджера. Загальна схема такого аналізу в згрупованому вигляді наведена в Таблиці 1. , а її використання дає змогу мати чітке уявлення про характер і діяльність позичальника.
Таблиця 1. Схема проведення кредитного аналізу (правило шести ”СІ” - принципи кредитування.
I. Характер. II. Здатність. III. Грошові кошти
1. Кредитна історія клієнта банку
2. Досвід роботи інших кредиторів з даним клієнтом
3. Мета позички
4. Досвід клієнта і складанні планів та прогнозів
5. Кредитний рейтинг клієнта
6. Наявність серед керівників осіб з правом другого підпису 1. Дієздатність клієнта і гарантія
2. Наявність статутних документів
3. Характеристика клієнта: юридичний статус, засновники, основна діяльність, тощо 1. Обсяг в звітному періоді: продаж, прибутку, дивідендів
2. Забезпеченість власними коштами
3. Наявність ліквідних резервів
4. Кредиторська та дебіторська заборгованість
5. Структура капіталу та рівень ліверіджу
6. Контроль за витратами
7. Динаміка цін на акції (показник Р/Е)
8. Наявність аудиторського висновку
9. Якість управління
10. Останні зміни в бухгалтерському обліку
IV. Забезпечення V. Умови VI. Контроль
1. Право власності на активи
2. Строк служби активів
3. Залишкова вартість
4. Борги, обмеження
5. Зобов’язання за лізингом та закладні
6. Наявність страхування
7. Гарантії
8. Банк клієнта
9. Судові санкції
10. Податкові санкції
11. Потреба в фінансових ресурсах 1. Рейтинг клієнта в своїй галузі, частка ринку
2. Конкурентоздатність клієнта
3. Чутливість до кон’юнктур-них та технологічних змін
4. Умови на ринку робочої сили
5. Вплив інфляції на грошові потоки клієнта
6. Довгострокові прогнози розвитку галузі та перспектива зростання клієнта 1. Банківське законодавство
2. Правила кредитування
3. Наявність документації у клієнта
4. Кредитна заявка та кредитний договір
5. Інформація сторонніх осіб (політики, економісти, громадські діячі) про зовнішні фактори зміни умов економічної діяльності

Однім з принципів банківського кредитування є забезпеченість зобов'язань продавця позичальнику щодо поверненню позички. Забезпечення зобов'язань може досягатися за рахунок застави позичальником майна, на що банком в відповідності з діючим законодавством може бути звернуте стягнення, гарантії (поручительства), стягнення пені і т.д.
Майно і інші форми зобов'язань продавця позичальника перед банком повинні задовольняти наступним вимогам:
1. Висока ліквідність.
2. Спроможність до тривалого строку зберігання (як мінімум протягом строку погашення позички).
3. Стабільність цін на заставлене майно.
4. Низькі витрати по зберіганню і реалізації застави.
В залежності від того, наскільки заставлене майно відповідає даним вимогам, варіюється обсяг позики, що видається. Розмір позики під заставу встановлюється в процентах до ринкової вартості застави в момент укладання кредитної угоди. В випадку неплатоспроможності позичальника кредитор має право реалізації застави з метою відшкодування з виторгуваних коштів боргу клієнта і витрат по реалізації. Виручка що залишилася повертається позичальнику. Якщо виручена сума виявиться недостатньою, то кредитор має право фінансової претензії до позичальника.
Найбільш розповсюдженими є наступні носії забезпечення кредитів:
1.Гарантія (поручительство) - зобов'язання продавця третьої особи погасити борг позичальника в випадку його неплатоспроможності. Оформляється в вигляді самостійних зобов'язань продавця гаранта за допомогою передатного надпису на вимозі боргу (індосаменту). В ролі гаранта (поручителя) можуть виступати банки.
2.Переуступка контрактів - форма, що практикується при кредитуванні будівельних компаній або фірм, які здійснюють регулярні поставки товару (надання послуг) контрактів. Позичальник переуступає контракт банку, що кредитує, в результаті чого надходження від замовника по оплаті робіт зараховуються суму премії в погашення заборгованості по позиці.


Автор: Ecology 10 декабря 2007 | Переглядів: 65535 | Коментарi: 3289
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B Eosinophil.This procedure is CT myelography.Another Italian to pen ideas about the heart and who used the concept of blood circulation was botanistcumdoctor Andrea Cesalpino who at one stage declared The movement of blood is constant from the vena cava great vein through the lungs and through the heart to the aorta.View Large Save Table Download Slide acheter propecia avion Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji has also been associated with furosemide use.akg images R.esophageal Perforation Etiology blunt trauma medical tubes and instruments forceful vomiting Boerhaaves syndrome that is associated with alcoholic binges and bulimia Clinical features pain severe retrosternalchestshoulder pain tachycardia hypo tension tachypnea dyspnea fever Hammans sign mediastinal crunch produced by the heart beating against airfilled tissues pneumothorax or pleural effusion Contrast esophagram is definitive diagnostic study soluble Gastrografin swallow preferred CXR usually shows air in the mediastinum.There are several species of mugwort with various names such as yomoge and gaiyou in Japan ssuk in Korea and mogusa aiye and huang huaai in China. Cialis Even the start of Romes decline has been blamed on the plague since it weakened armies and forced commanders to withdraw from politically unstable territories.This examination is important during protracted labor or with breech presentation.If the force in Fig.C SThe pages of De Humani were divided into seven books more akin to what we might today call chapters that summarized Vesaliuss extensive findings.PREFIXES A B FIGURE Congenital anomaliesFrom Newtons laws it can be shown that angular momentum of a body is con served if there is no unbalanced external torque acting on the body. brand viagra ARDSmidth century cellular pathology see pp.Remen R. online viagra Consider giving mL of DW intravenously if the patient is symptomatic.The classic triad of steatorrhea diabe tes mellitus and pancreatic calcification on plain films or CT scan is also diagnostic.Although this solution for the diffusion problem is not exact it does illustrate the nature of the diffusion process.A mass spectrometer is one of the devices that can perform this task.opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes priligy mastercard Underlying them all are microscopic cells multiplying out of control to form tumors growths that are malignantthat is they have the potential to spread to other parts of the body.


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In the normal ear the fluid filled cochlea pro cesses the sound signal according to frequency such that the various frequency components of the incoming sound stimulate nerve endings along different parts of the basilar membrane see ChapterWe will cal culate under the conditions of equilibrium the pulling force F m exerted by the biceps muscle and the direction and magnitude of the reaction force F r at the fulcrum the joint.Fujita K Fujita HM Fujii K et al.High levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown Tadalafil Pharmacology of Current and Future Therapies A.Phillips a pediatrician requested that aan EEG PET scan LP be performed on the febrile feverish child.granulocyteA schematic diagram of the atomic force microscope is shown in Fig. cialis viagra o levitra C.Further questioning of a friend revealed that he had fallen and struck the corner of a table after injecting heroin.This is the single most important thing a family can do to help someone with asthma.PaCO PaO free viagra samples before buying These days can be divided into four time periods useful in describing the events of the cycle.cardiac tamponade Pressure on the heart caused by uid in the pericardial space.From HarwoodNuss A Wolfson AB Linden CL et al.folliclestimulating hormone FSH Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell ovum.Depending on the particular vaccine it may be inoculated by injection by mouth orally jabbed through the skin or introduced by some other route.The development of drug resistance to the ER antago nist tamoxifen involves epigenetic silencing of estrogen regulated genesth ed. cialis professional Endocrine Gland Hypersecretion Hyposecretion Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Pancreas Parathyroid glands Pituitaryanterior lobe Pituitaryposterior lobe Thyroid gland Please refer to the Evolve website for additional exercises games and images related to this chapter.If youre repeatedly using that muscle the muscle becomes fatigued and you cant use it as much..LUNG DISORDERS atelectasis Collapsed lung incomplete expansion of alveoli Figure. Dapoxetine A yearold female presents to the ED with a complaint of abdominal pain.


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He claimed that vital atoms harbored the quality of life permeated the natural world and animated their surroundings to create life.HsamiRb is a plasmastable microRNA that is elevated in premanifest Huntingtons disease. cialis 20mg price at walmart The patient is alert and oriented.Ricovery from preexistent symptoms can be immediate about mostly prostatodynia patients or delayed from days to several months presumably depending upon the degree of chronicity of inflammatory changes which may take time to subside.CBC g.Vertebrobasilar TiAs Decreased perfusion of the posterior fossa Dizziness double vision vertigo numbness of ipsilateral face and contralateral limbs dysarthria hoarseness dysphagia projectile vomiting headaches and drop attacks b.However the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information whereas the endocrine system uses blood vessels as information channels.count CTPA CT pulmonary angiography CTS carpal tunnel syndrome Cu copper cuprum CVA cerebrovascular accident costovertebral angle CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system chorionic villus sampling c w compare with consistent with CX CXR chest xray lm Cx cervix cysto cystoscopy DC dilatationdilation and curettage DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ DD discharge diagnosis differential diagnosis Decub.Diabetologia. generic cialis Acute arterial occlusion kidneyEmail this page to a friendShare on facebookShare on twitterBookmark SharePrinterfriendly version Acute arterial occlusion of the kidney is a sudden severe blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney.If both are mainly positive then the axis is normal.ancient Indian texts while Ayurvedic records describe the healer Madhav and other wandering variolators during the th and th centuries see p.However fluoroquinolones are generally ineffective against the streptococci enterococci and anaerobes. canadian cialis Decreased renal functionTreatmentPrior joint damage e.Other tests the urologist may consider using include cystoscopy in which a small telescope is passed through the urethra into the bladder permitting examination of the urethra prostate and bladder. Buy Viagra NitricOxide Synthases in the Penis.MRIto rule out cerebellopontine angle tumor D. claravis A few weeks later tender inguinal lymphadenopathy usually unilateral and con stitutional symptoms develop.Where comparisons have been made the results in nonCOPD appear to be identical to the rest of the published literature.asbestosis croup inltrate asthma atelectasis chronic bronchitis cystic brosis diphtheria emphysema lung cancer pertussis sarcoidosis


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